The heat pump is a thermal machine, which forces the flow of heat from the lower temperature to an area of higher temperature. This process is contrary to the natural flow direction occurs due to the heat supplied from the outside of mechanical energy. Heat pumps are devices commonly used in our homes for many years. The most well known heat pump is a refrigerator. In recent years, they are becoming increasingly popular heat pump is used to central heating and running water. In context of the heat source can pump exchanger be distinguished as: ground, water and air. Before we explain what the difference let us show the operating principle which is the same for all types.
Heat pump with ground heat exchanger provides a stable efficiency throughout the year, the efficiency is very high COP 5-6 (500-600%). We can distinguish two main types of ground heat exchangers: horizontal and vertical. The first is the pipe system with a fluids at a depth of about 1.2 m on the surface of about 2 times bigger than the usable area of the house. The area located above the installation should not be shadowed, otherwise come to overcooling the soil and decrease the efficiency of the heat pump. This solution apparently requires a lot of space and earthworks. The heat pump with a vertical heat exchanger consists of drilling one or more wells from which the heat is charged. Regeneration consists in providing a source of heat through the ground water. Both solutions in addition to the costs associated with the heat pump (40-50 thousand. PLN) needs funding for the heat exchanger (10 -30 thousand PLN). Large initial costs are compensated by a reduction in operating costs. However, each project must be examined individually.
Heat pump with air exchanger is a device that does not require earthworks; installation is to set the device the size of a refrigerator in a nearby building. With this solution, the investor saves on the earthworks. This pump does not guarantee consistent performance and with decreasing temperature outside its effectiveness decreases. In case of cold weather below -10 degrees, an additional heat source, eg. A fireplaceis necessary. Based on long-term observations it is noticed that there are about twelve such a days during the year. Air heat pump is also an attractive solution in bivalent systems as auxiliary device. Such a device is considerably cheaper than the previously mentioned and at the same time saves energy for hot water purposes.